Bank Robberies

Leymann's findings from interviews with 221 bank employees after a robbery were published in five separate papers. The first documents the course of stress symptoms over time after a robbery; the second discusses individual differences in stress reactions. In the third article, Leymann looks at the importance of social support, and in the final two he analyzes the stress reactions, both immediate and long-term, following a robbery. Together, these constitute a complete description of the effects of a traumatic incident. The last article on this page is a summary and dissertation of all this work.
No online version available
Leymann, Heinz. "Somatic and psychological symptoms after the experience of life threatening events: A profile analysis." Victimology 10.1-4 (1985):512-538.
Analyzes how stress symptoms provoked by a bank robbery are reduced over time.
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Leymann, Heinz. "Stress reactions after bank robberies: Psychological and psychosomatic reaction patterns." Work and stress 2.2 (1988):123-132.
Discusses differences in the number and nature of symptoms reported by various groups of bank employees after a robbery. Different groups gave significantly different results. (Women, for instance, remembered having more symptoms than men).
No online version available,
but an abstract can be found at the
National Criminal Justice Refernce Service database
Leymann, Heinz. "Social support after armed robbery in the workplace." The victimology handbook: research findings, treatment, and public policy. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc, (1990): 285-304.
Discusses the importance of social support after a bank robbery. Support from family and friends was shown to have a positive effect; attention from the media was shown to have a negative effect.
No online version available
Leymann, Heinz. "The Immediate situational fear and its relationship to long-term anxiety.” Psychiatry Research (1990).
Discusses the anxiety of the immediate reactions to a bank robbery.
No online version available
Leymann, Heinz. "Long-term anxiety after the experience of a bank robbery – a multivariate analysis.” Psychiatry Research (1990).
Provides a systematic demonstration of how the conditions of a bank robbery determine the establishment of long-term anxiety.
No online version available
Leymann, Heinz. Psychological reactions to violence in working life: bank robberies. Department of Psychiatry, Umea University, (1990).
A dissertation based on the 5 above papers.