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Targets of Silence

Tactics of exclusion and ostracism at work are common in cases of mobbing. The resources below shed light on the nature of social ostracism and the consequences it has on a target.

This article provides a brief introduction to the topic of ostracism at work. Timsin, Judith 2003. Being Voted Off the Island? Don't Ignore It. The Globe and Mail. Careers. 16 November 2005.

Kipling Williams, a professor of social psychology, defines ostracism and discusses the short and long term consequences for targets.

Williams, Kipling D. 2001. Ostracism: The Power of Silence. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

This books focuses on the neurophysiological, the emotional, the cognitive, and the behavioural consequences of social ostracism.

Williams, K. D., Forgas, J. P., & von Hippel, W. (Eds). (2005). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying. New York: Psychology Press.

Kipling Williams examines the immediate consequences of ostracism and individual differences in restorative behaviours after the episode of social exclusion.

Williams, Kipling D. "Ostracism: The Kiss of Social Death."
Social and Personality Psychology Compass (1:1) , pp. 236–247

This paper discusses the nature of ostracism and the adaptive and non-adaptive ways individuals cope in the face of social exclusion.

Williams, Kipling and Jonathan Gerber 2004. "Ostracism: The Making of the Ignored and Excluded Mind." Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems. Special Issue: Making minds II 6:3.


In this study researchers compare the effects of social exclusion and verbal disputes.


Zadro, Lisa, Kipling Williams, Rick Richardson 2005. "Riding the O Train: Comparing the Effects of Ostracism and Verbal Dispute on Targets and Sources." Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 8:2. Pp.125-143.